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Fiber Optis can be used in so many fields:


  • Data Storage Equipment

  • Interconnects,Networking

  • Gigabit Ethernet


  • Aerospace & Avionics

  • Data Transfer Tests

  • Network Equipment

  • Broadcast Automotive

  • Electronics,Sensing

  • Oil & Gas, Imaging

  • Outside Plant,Central Office

  • Harsh Environment

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  • Illumination,Institutions

  • Ship to Shore,Education

  • Simulation,Military,Space

  • Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

  • Semiconductor Equipment

  • Diagnostics & Troubleshooting

  • Premise Networks Carrier Networks

  • Independent Telecommunication Providers


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How Fiber Transmission Works?



Light rays are modulated into digital pulses with a laser or LED and move along the core without penetrating the cladding. The light stays confined to the core because the cladding has a lower refractive index, which is the measure of a material’s ability to bend light.


Fiber Ribbon Drop Cable with Strength Member

Fiber Ribbon Drop Cable with Strength Member


This results in the phenomenon of total internal reflection (TIR), which happens when a propagating wave strikes a boundary between two mediums (in this case, the core and the cladding) at an angle larger than the fiber’s critical angle. If the refractive index is lower on the other side of the boundary (the cladding) and the incident angle is greater than the critical angle, the wave cannot pass through and is entirely reflected.


Total Internal Reflection (TIR)

Total Internal Reflection (TIR)


The critical angle θc is determined by Snell’s Law, which states that “the ratio of the sines of the angles of incidence and refraction is equivalent to the reciprocal of the ratio of the indices of refraction”.


sinθ1 / sinθ2 = N2 / N1


Rearranging Snell’s Law, the angle of incidence can be calculated as:


sinθi = N2 / N1 * sinθt


To find the critical angle, we calculate the value for θi when θt = 90°, which means that sin θt = 1 (90° is the absolute maximum angle of transmission). Solving for θi, we arrive at the following equation:


θi = θt =arcsin(N2 /N1)


For example, consider a ray of light moving from water to air. The refractive indices of water and air are approximately 1.333 and 1, respectively, so calculating for the critical angle we get:


Θcrit = arcsin (N2 / N1) = arcsin (1.333 / 1) = 48.6o


Therefore, the angle of incidence must be greater than 48.6° in order for total internal reflection to occur in our example.


Light reflection in the water

Light reflection in the water


Sopto supplies a wide range of fiber optic cables, like Outdoor Non-metallic armored cable, Waterproof Outdoor Fiber Optic Cable and cable tools and so on. For the newest quotes, please contact a Sopto representative by calling 86-755-36946668, or by sending an email to For more info, please browse our website.